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Historical Background

Historical Background

In historical development among nations in the 20th Century, there were two important events. First was well known as the Asian - African Conference of Bandung in 1955. This most notable event, after 6 years later, had proliferated pivotal initiatives or ideas for developing countries to born Non-Aligned Movement (NAM ) in 1961 and holding the First Summit of the -Movement in Belgrade

At the Asian-African Conference convened in Bandung in April 1955, Statesmen and Leaders from 29 African and Asian countries, the first generation of leaders of two continents , met, identified and addressed the happening crucial issues it that time. It was a defining moment in world history. The Asian-African Conference was a major factor in the adoption by the United Nations of the declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

For independent nations, today, the Conference can never be forgot as the slumber of the centuries in order to stand up and walk in freedom. The freedom itself was not meant as last endeavours of among nations, but they tried to order the pursuit of their responsible and equitable relationships. They deliberated on ways of dealing with the major global problems of that time. The first generation of Leaders of Asia and Africa also found it appropriate and necessary to enunciate a new ethos that would govern the relationship between and among nations great and small. This, later on, is known as the Dasa Sila of Bandung or the Ten Principles of international relations.

The seeds that sprouted in Bandung took firm roots 6 years later when 25 newly independent countries formally founded the NAM at Belgrade Summit of 1961. 'The Movement has, thus, been representing the vast majority of humankind, and providing the Block politics of the Cold War.

During the 1973 Algeria Summit , the Movement put economic cooperation a high place in its priorities. The Movement developed. broad policies for a North - South Dialogue within the UN System . The C,-77, being the negotiating arm of the developing countries, launched a North-South Dialogue which went through preliminary talks and later an attempt at global negotiations was also made. However, ten years intensive efforts followed with very little to show for it.. In most dialogues, nothing of substance or significance was accomplished. Worse, disagreements deepened riot only between the NAM and the countries of developed world but also among NAM Members themselves.

Since the early 1980's until the end of the cold war period, the major industrialised countries simply practised a unilateral or selective bilateral approach with their developing country counterparts. They simply chose for reasons of their own which developing country they would cooperate with. There was nothing much for the NAM could do about it because this period was precisely the time when developing countries as a group were at their weakest, the debt burden had. begun to weigh heavily upon them and they were not united. The International Order has begun to crumble and the contours of a new order are just beginning to emerge but its final shape is yet to cry stallize.

Meanwhile, multilateral dialogue on global economic issues was by no means excellent until the late 1980's. However, it was during its Tenth Summit in Jakarta in 1992 that the NAM altogether changed its approaches and orientation from one that was often viewed as confrontational to one that is unmistakably conciliatory and cooperative.

In Tenth Summit, the NAM addressed the most fundamental issue. ]-he issue was a question of choice - whether to allow the ongoing global changes to proceed on their own momentum, without coherence and direction towards a new order that is more in harmony with principles of Non-Alignment, one that is based on mutual respect, social justice and a love of freedom and peace. The Movement also stressed and adapted to the existing currents by setting new priorities and reordering old ones, by devising new approaches and new strategies. The NAM decided to restore the issue of economic cooperation to the top of the Movement's agenda. In parallel with this the NAM offered to engage the developed, world in cooperation in all fields. This become known as the NAM's new orientation. The old approach which was dogmatic and adversarial had not worked and so the NAM leaders decided to abandon it, and they committed themselves to give this new and flexible approach.

After the Jakarta Summit, the NAM worked hard and succeeded in relaunching the North-South Dialogue and intensifying of South-South Cooperation. As pointed out by President Soeharto during the Summit, that the North--South relationship cannot be changed while South-South Cooperation remains unchanged. Since The Jakarta Summit, The NAM more focused on Cooperation. The clear example on this is the South-South initiative of the NAM that has had the greatest impact on the Asia-Africa Forum which was held in December 1994 in Bandung. In this forum, a follow up to the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), the developing countries of the Far East which have impressed the world with their dynamic growth shared experiences, observation, and ia,,ights with the developing countries of Africa. The Forum has resulted in the establishment of a solid foundation for promotion of development cooperation between Asian and African Countries. Now often referred to as the Bandung Forum, it could serve as a model for future South-South Cooperation efforts.


By definition, South-south Cooperation is described as the countries of the South are in various stages of development and they cannot liberate themselves from underdevelopment through a single formula or a single development route. Precisely, they are at various stages of development, they have different resources of expertise, capital or markets. They could therefore go into joint endeavours to use to the maximum these different resources. By taking advantage of the economies of aggregation and exploiting new openings for cooperation among themselves, developing countries felt that they would also come to a stronger negotiating position vis-a-vis the North.

In all, it is, therefore, concluded that the process of decolonization during the present century had a profound political, economic and psychological impact and acted as a strong stimulus to South-South Cooperation. Anti Colonial movements supported one another. With the achievement of independence was born a sense of national dignity and mutual partnership. Issue of national development came to the fore. Many developing countries found themselves short of trained professionals, experienced administrators, skilled technicians and financial resources. Experience showed that the technology offered by developed countries was often not appropriate to the circumstances in developing countries. There was general recognition of the need to make the fullest use of the capacities, indigenous skills and resources of developing countries. South-South cooperation was seen as an effective instrument for national capacity-building.

It should be noted that developing countries will be able to derive the full benefits of South-South Cooperation without assistance from international community. South~South cooperation complements North-South Cooperation. Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries has received universal approval.

Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC)

When the Afro-Asian nations met at the Bandung (Indonesia) Conference in 1955 and recognised the urgency of promoting economic. cooperation among themselves. They Signalled, a trend which was to have a profound influence on future international cooperation. The founding of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1961 and the Group of 77 (6-77) in 1964 accelerated developing countries drive for collective self-reliance. The Buenos Aires conference on Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) in 1978 made landmark recommendation. Promotion of TCDC came to be recognised as the responsibility of the entire international community, while the primacy and leadership role of developing countries was maintained.

One of the most poignant lessons that may be derived from the experience of many developing countries during the past several decades is that development cannot be imposed from above of from outside. Many national programme has failed because some expert descended on a community and simply took over the communal thinking process. After much such failures, communities must rely first on the minds and skills of their own members and on their own capability to mobilize the resources necessary for economic and social development activities. This means that the quality of human resources at the community level has to be maximised. That is why the thrust of various programmes which our Movement launched in recent times within the framework of Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) has been towards the development of human resources- so that people in their communities may be able to make competent decisions, design feasible plans and marshal the resources for their own development.

In this historic new stage of progress towards the attainment of the New International Economic Order (NIEO), TCDC is becoming a critically important dimension. It is a means of building communication and promoting wider and more effective co~operation among developing countries. It is a vital force for initiating, designing, organising, and promoting cooperation among developing countries so that they can create, acquire, adapt, transfer and pool knowledge and experience for their mutual benefit and for achieving national and collective self-reliance, which are essential for their social and economic development.

It is also recognised that TCDC remains widely regarded as a viable and valuable engine for economic cooperation and development among countries of the South. TCDC is a part of South-South Cooperation continues to grow. It is assumed that the dimensions of parallel form of assistance and skills transfer in tandem with traditional forms of cooperation with countries of the North.

In addition, the range of intercountry and interregional southern cooperation modalities has mushroomed in the 1990's into a wide array of permutations and combinations, from bilateral South-South arrangements, to multilaterafly-assisted. South-South Agreements, and to triangulated South-North-South framework. In this new environment, there is ample room for many forms of TCDC assistance with each intervention playing a valuable role. Technical cooperation among developing countries is important to develop and expand economic and technical links within the South, so that individually and collectively these countries can improve their position in the world economic system.

For about 4 years now, the members of Non-aligned Movement have endeavoured to broaden and intensify South-South Cooperation as a way of solving some of our problems of development and as a major component of our strategy for bringing about a new international order peace, social justice, and sharing prosperity. This endeavour have placed particular emphasis on TCDC, in line with the pronouncement of the Tenth Summit Conference Jakarta) that TCDC is an important catalyst for South-South Cooperation and a significant dimension of the National development process being implemented.


The Progress of the South-South Cooperation

Also being implemented within the framework of South-South Cooperation is the NAM initiative on the issue of population. A group of experts has like wise been put to work making in depth studies on this issue and their recommendations have been submitted. one of the results of this effort is a report titled "NAM Support for South-South collaboration in the field of Population and Family Planning which is based on Indonesia's Experience"

The NAM also addressed the problem of hunger through an Ad Hoc Advisory Group of Experts which has submitted a proposed Action Programme. This programme subsequently was adopted by the Conference of the Minister of Food and Agriculture of the Non-Aligned Movement and other Developing Countries held in Bali in October 1994.

Equally important, another action-oriented strategy that has been adopted by the Movement is Self-Propelling Growth. It has been found effective and appropriate for pursuing South~South Cooperation and for achieving sustainable development. This strategy promotes-community-based economic growth as well as the right of the poor to participate in and benefit from development. To further propagate this grass roots approach, Indonesia in June 1995 hosted the Open-Ended joint Meeting of Experts and Decision Makers of Developing Countries on Development Schemes.

It is important to note that the Self-Propelling Growth Scheme was first endorsed by the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation of the NAM in Bali in May 1993. In accordance with a decision of that meeting, the Experts Group Meeting on the Promotion and Enhancement of the Self Propelling Growth Strategy within the framework of South-South International Development Cooperation was convened in Jakarta in September 1993. The 1994 NAM Ministerial Meeting in Cairo reaffirmed the recommendation of Standing Ministerial Committee that a Joint Meeting of Experts and Decision-Makers should be convened in order to develop and formulate an action-oriented programme for fostering self reliance and sustainable development. At any stage in the development of the Self-Propelling Growth Strategy within Non-Aligned Movement, it will always find a staunch supporter and advocate. Self-Reliance it self is Indonesian philosophy of development as enunciated by President Soeharto at the Tenth Summit of Non-Aligned Movement in Jakarta in September 1992 and in various other international forums after that.

Regarding that Indonesian philosophy, "Development" may prove to be elusive if it is not pursued simultaneously with other goals: "Equity" in the sharing of the benefits of and responsibility for development, and "Stability" so that the activities necessary for development may be carried out expeditiously without the debilitating effects of human conflict and social turmoil.

At the Eleventh NAM Summit in Colombia in October 1995 Indonesia turned over to Colombia the chairmanship of the Non-Aligned Movement. The new NAN4 chairman, President Ernesto Samper Pizano of Colombia, cited President Soeharto's Statement during the Jakarta Summit that "National development must be focused on the people, must be of the people, by the people and for the people". the Movement called to become intensively people oriented. At the global level, the beneficiaries of development are all people, the entire humankind, but the lamentable facts is that until today a few nations are making the decisions that affect all of humankind. Because the economic policies of the countries of the North have a profound impact on the economic plight of developing countries of the South.

Parallel with intensively people oriented, the Heads of State or Government of the NAM stated that they are committed to waging war on poverty, illiteracy, and under development. More over they called for the accelerated development of developing countries based on equitable distribution., growth, and stability. The NAM should seek to advance broad based people-centred development, including the development of human capital. In this respect, the NAM reinvigorate the North-south dialogue and to engage the countries of the North in a global partnership for development; a more equitable sharing of the fruits and responsibilities for development so that sustainable global economic growth may take place in an atmosphere of peace and stability.

Meanwhile, the determining efforts to intensify South-South Cooperation on the basis collective Self-reliance is likely imperative. A more effective mean., of pooling the resources, expertise and experiences internal to the South should be developed. Member of the NAM also called upon developing countries to initiate concrete and practicable forms of cooperation and to devise realistic modalities for the implementation of cooperation. Dealing with this the concept of collective self-reliance could be translated into reality. For this, TCDC is deemed as an essential means for further strengthening the national. and collective self-reliance of developing countries. It enables them to use their own capacities creatively to solve prising development problems.

However, it is a fact that the current level. of TCDC. Is "much smaller' both in terms of value and volume, than technical cooperation between developed and developing countries. 'this is due to factors such as the scarcity of financial resources, and the lack of relevant information on capacities and capabilities of developing countries. The most crucial thing is a lack of appreciation on the part of developing countries themselves for the existing TCDC programmes.

It is, therefore, to strengthen TCDC itself, there should be an increased focus within South-South Technical Cooperation programmes upon improving the capabilities of developing countries to address their most common critical needs and problems through appropriate and effective efforts. As mentioned earlier, South-South 'Technical Cooperation programmes should pay more attention to enhancing cooperation on development schemes in strategic fields of people-centred and integrated community development that have proven to be successful in, generating Self-Propelling Growth and capitalising upon local resources.

To met the above mentioned cooperation, the development experiences should be shared among developing countries. The sharing of such experiences could be enhanced through Expert Exchanges, technical information sharing, facility sharing, focused workshop and seminars, network arrangements, trainings, and apprenticeship. The possibility of replicating such development scheme might be explored through tripartite and multipartite arrangements between developing countries developed countries and multilateral as well as international organizations. It is also necessary to tap national as well as international systems to develop information network on the strategic capacities and capabilities of developing countries.

Considering the fact of the existing cooperation, the efforts done should be inter-related and be continuously developed and enhanced. Developing countries should have a more concerted effort in promoting and enhancing technical cooperation either in the framework, of TCDC or South-South Cooperation through concrete and action oriented programmes. It is, therefore, important to say that an appropriate institutional focus and support is required.

In the above connection, in the Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of Non Aligned Countries held on 25-27 April 1995 in Bandung, Indonesia, Government of Indonesia proposed the idea of establishing a centre for South-South Technical Cooperation (Here in after referred to as the Centre). The Ministers expressed a positive response and took with interest the proposed idea and requested the Government of Indonesia to elaborate the proposal for the establishment of the Centre.

In the preparation for the establishment of the Centre for South-south Technical Cooperation, the Bureau for Technical Cooperation of the Cabinet Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia, which is the Agency responsible for coordinating of all technical cooperation between Indonesia with other countries and International Organizations, was assigned to prepare the document of the proposed Centre to be submitted to the Eleventh Non-Aligned Summit held in Cartagena, Colombia in 1995. The Bureau is also responsible in preparing the programs activities of the centre and in coordinating the set up of information networking of the centre. in the Eleventh Conference of fleads of State of Government of Non-Aligned Countries held in Cartagena, Colombia, 14 to 20 October 1995, the Heads of States of Government then have endorsed the establishment of the Centre for South-South Technical Cooperation (CSSTC) in Indonesia as one of the vital and effective means for promotion and accelerating development in developing countries.

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